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Today,I read 'The Insulted and the Injured' again.
Dostoyevsky is really a great writer.

Smile,just think Dazai is really like Nellie.
Although he rejected it...
Emm,Nellie is cute anyway...(laughs)

By the way,June is coming again.
I really want to go Mitaka!(tears)

A Letter to Kawabata Yasunari

I have finished my translation of 'A Letter to Kawabata Yasunari' (川端康成へ). Actually, I am not confident that I have it all correct, so if anyone thinks they spot a mistake, please do let me know. I have also posted it, with the original text, on my other blog.

A Letter to Kawabata Yasunari

In the September issue of Bungei Shunju you wrote of me disparagingly: “… After all, ‘The Flowers of Buffoonery’ is full of the life and the literary views of its author, but it seems to me that there is an unpleasant cloud surrounding the author’s personal life at present, and, regrettably, this prevents his talent from being expressed as it should be.”

Let us not bandy inept lies. When, standing in the front of a bookshop, I read the words you had written, I was deeply aggrieved. From the way you had written, it was quite as if you alone had decided who should and should not receive the Akutagawa Prize. This was not your writing. Without doubt, someone had made you write this. What is more, you were even exerting yourself to make this obvious.

‘The Flowers of Buffoonery’ is a piece I wrote three years ago, in the summer of my twenty-fourth year. Then, it bore the title, ‘The Sea’. I gave it to my friends, Kon Kani’ichi and Ima Uhei, to read, but compared with the version that exists today it was a very rough piece of work with none of the monologues now belonging to the ‘I’ of the narrative. It was simply the narrative itself – a plain but structurally sound story. That autumn I borrowed Gide’s essay on Dostoyevsky from Akamatsu Gessen, who lived in the neighbourhood, and reading it set me to thinking; I took that primitive – even formal – work of mine, ‘The Sea’, tore it to pieces, and put it back together as a work in which the face of the ‘I’ was to be found everywhere in the text. In this way I believed I had created a work the like of which had not been seen before in Japan; boasting as much, I passed it around my friends. I had my friends Nakamura Chihei and Kubo Ryuuichiro, and also Mr Ibuse, who lived nearby, read it, and it was well received. Encouraged by this, I revised it further. I made deletions and additions, and wrote the whole thing afresh five times before putting it away carefully in a paper bag in the cupboard.
At around New Year this year, my friend Dan Kazuo read this manuscript.

“Hey,” he said, “This is a masterpiece! You must send this to a magazine. I’ll try taking it to Kawabata Yasunari. Kawabata is sure to understand a work like this.”

Soon after that I came to an impasse in my writing. I went on a journey, prepared, in my heart, as it were, to die in the wilderness. This incident caused a little stir.

However much my elder brother berated me, that was fine, I just needed to borrow five hundred yen. And then, I could try again. I returned to Tokyo. Thanks to the trouble taken by my friends, I managed to secure from my brother, for a two or three year period starting then, an allowance of fifty yen a month. Immediately I set about looking for lodgings, but while I was still searching I was stricken with appendicitis and admitted to the Shinohara hospital at Asagaya. Septic pus had seeped into the peritoneum. I had been diagnosed a little too late. I was admitted on the fourth of April, this year. Nakatani Takao came to visit me. Join the Japanese romantic movement, he urged. To celebrate, I shall publish ‘The Flowers of Buffoonery’. These are the matters we discussed. ‘The Flowers of Buffoonery’ was in the possession of Dan Kazuo. I insisted that it would be best if Dan Kazuo took the manuscript to Mr Kawabata. Due to the pain from the incision in my stomach, I was quite unable to move. Then, my lung became infected. For many days I was unconscious. My wife informed me afterwards that the doctor had declared he could no longer take responsibility for my fate. For a full month I lay in the surgical ward, and even to lift my head was a struggle. In May I was transferred to the Kyodo Hospital for internal diseases in Setagaya Ward. I was there for two months. On the first of July the organisation of the hospital was to be changed, all the staff were to be replaced and so on, and as a result, the patients all had to leave. My brother and his acquaintance, a tailor by the name of Kita Hoshiro, discussed the matter and decided to move me to a place in Funabashi, Chiba Prefecture. I spent the days collapsed in a rattan chair, taking a light constitutional stroll at morning and evening. Once a week, a doctor came from Tokyo. This state of affairs continued for two months, when, at the end of August, I stood in a bookshop, read a copy of Bungei Shunju, and discovered what you had written: “… an unpleasant cloud surrounding the author’s personal life at present…” etc. etc. To tell the truth, I burned with rage. For many nights I found it hard to sleep on this account.

Is breeding exotic birds and going to see the dance, Mr Kawabata, really such an exemplary lifestyle? I’ll stab him! That is what I thought. The man’s an utter swine, I thought. But then, suddenly, I felt the twisted, hot, passionate love that you bore towards me – a love such as that of Nellie in Dostoyevsky’s The Insulted and the Injured – fill me to my very core. It can’t be! It can’t be! I shook my head in denial. But your love, beneath your affected coldness – violent, deranged, Dostoyevskian love – made my body burn as with fever. And, what’s more, you did not know a thing about it.

I am not attempting to engage in a contest of wits with you. In the words that you wrote I sensed ‘worldly ties’ and smelt the bitter sadness of ‘financial concerns’. I merely wanted to make this known to two or three devoted readers. It is something that I have to make known. We are beginning to doubt that there is beauty in the moral path of subservience.

I think of Kikuchi Kan, wiping the sweat from his brow with a handkerchief, grinning and saying, “Well, I suppose it’s better this way. We haven’t lost anything in the end,” and I too smile like a fool. It really is better this way, it seems. I did feel a little sorry for Akutagawa Ryuunosuke, but - what am I talking about? This, too, is part of those ‘worldly ties’.

Mr Ishikawa is an example to us all. In that sense he is dispensing his duties with deep sincerity.

It’s just that I feel dissatisfied. That Kawabata Yasunari tried to assume a casual attitude in his lying, but couldn’t quite cut it – I can’t help being dissatisfied at this. It should not have been this way. It really should not have been this way. You have to be more aware, in your dealings, that a writer lives in the midst of absurdity and imperfection.
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The Joy of Novels

Hello. I have just today completed a translation into English of one of the essays from 『もの思う葦』. I will paste it below. The original title is 『小説の面白さ』. If anyone thinks I have made any mistakes in the translation, please let me know. I have also posted the translation on my other blog here. Anyway, here's the translation:

The Joy of Novels

Novels have been, from the beginning, the reading matter of women and children. A so-called sensible adult would not read them with any sense of deep involvement, and certainly would never take them so seriously as to bang the table-top with their fists in heated debate after reading. When people say that they have been edified by a novel, humbled by a novel and so on, well, if they are making a joke of some sort, perhaps the conversation might still be of interest, but if they have truly straightened their collar or bowed their head in the presence of a novel, one can only say that this is the act of a lunatic. For example, in some house or other, the wife may be reading a novel, and the husband, standing in front of the mirror and seeing to his tie before going to work, might ask, “What novels are interesting these days?” to which his wife might reply, “I thought Hemmingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls was very interesting, dear.” Fastening the buttons of his waistcoat, the husband then asks, as if humouring a complete imbecile, “What was the plot?” The wife becomes excited and recounts the story in great detail. Moved at her own explanation, she is choked with tears. The husband, pulling on his jacket, says, “Well, that certainly sounds interesting.” Then, that bread-winning husband goes out to work, and in the evening, calling at some salon, speaks thus:

“If we’re talking about contemporary novels, after all, I’d say it has to be Hemmingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls.”

That is precisely how pitiful novels are. The truth is, if you can pull the wool over the eyes of women and children, you’re already a great success. And there are many ways to trick women and children, whether by affecting an air of solemnity, playing the dandy, lying about your distinguished background, spreading out all your paltry learning in display, or shamelessly reporting the unhappiness of your home without a thought to the consequences; and if it is thereby plain as day that you are attempting to manipulate the sympathies of housewives, it does not matter, because then we have those dunces known as critics, who fill their rice bowls by holding this nonsense up as something to be worshipped – it’s enough to make you sick!

There’s one last thing I’d like to say. A long time ago there was a man called Takizawa Bakin. His stories were not very interesting, but, in the introduction to The Satomi Clan and the Eight Dogs, he wrote the following:

“If this work may be of enough interest to keep awake a few women and children, I shall be satisfied.”

And to “keep awake a few women and children” that man lost his eyesight, and even then he did not stop, but continued writing by dictation. Have you ever heard of anything more ridiculous?

No doubt this will seem a superfluous addition, but on one occasion, on a night when I was unable to sleep, I read Toson’s Before Dawn from beginning to end. I read until morning, and then I grew tired. So I tossed that heavy book down next to my pillow and, nodding off, I had a dream. It was a dream that was absolutely and in all parts unconnected with the work I had just read. I heard afterwards that Toson had taken ten years to complete that novel.
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Aha...a little funny.Would you want to try?

William Shakespeare.
April 1564 - April 23 1616
"And since you know you cannot see yourself,
so well as by reflection, I, your glass,
will modestly discover to yourself,
that of yourself which you yet know not of."
You are probably a passionate lover and often
tagged as a hopeless romantic... Though,
chances are, you're a not-so-hopeless romantic.
You're good with your comedy, but even better
with your drama. You're far ahead of your
time... and yet, still perfect for it. You're
extremely good at what you go and you've yet to
be matched. Keep up the good work.

Which Classic Writer Are You? (With Pics)
brought to you by Quizilla
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Novels of Dazai!


  1. ア、秋 (新字新仮名、作品ID:236) 
  2. 愛と美について (新字新仮名、作品ID:1578) 
  3. 青森 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:4357) 
  4.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:1562) 
  5. あさましきもの (新字新仮名、作品ID:240) 
  6. 兄たち (新字新仮名、作品ID:239) 
  7. 或る忠告 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42356) 
  8. 老ハイデルベルヒ (新字新仮名、作品ID:238) 
  9. 一燈 (新字新仮名、作品ID:273) 
  10. 『井伏鱒二選集』後記 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42359) 
  11. 陰火 (旧字旧仮名、作品ID:272) 
  12. ヴィヨンの妻 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2253) 
  13.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:2254) 
  14. 右大臣実朝 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:2255) 
  15. 鬱屈禍 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42354) 
  16. 姥捨 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2256) 
  17.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:42363) 
  18. 炎天汗談 (新字新仮名、作品ID:43071) 
  19. 黄金風景 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2257) 
  20. 黄村先生言行録 (新字新仮名、作品ID:287) 
  21. 桜桃 (新字新仮名、作品ID:308) 
  22. 緒方氏を殺した者 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42364) 
  23. おさん (新字新仮名、作品ID:305) 
  24. おしゃれ童子 (新字新仮名、作品ID:306) 
  25. 織田君の死 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42365) 
  26. お伽草紙 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:307) 
  27. 音について (新字旧仮名、作品ID:1606) 
  28. 思ひ出 (旧字旧仮名、作品ID:1574) 
  29. 親という二字 (新字新仮名、作品ID:309) 
  30. 女の決闘 (新字新仮名、作品ID:304) 
  31. 駈込み訴え (新字新仮名、作品ID:277) 
  32. 花燭 (新字新仮名、作品ID:281) 
  33. 風の便り (新字新仮名、作品ID:283) 
  34. 喝采 (新字新仮名、作品ID:280) 
  35. 家庭の幸福 (新字新仮名、作品ID:282) 
  36. 貨幣 (新字新仮名、作品ID:276) 
  37.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:278) 
  38. 彼は昔の彼ならず (新字新仮名、作品ID:300) 
  39. 川端康成へ (新字新仮名、作品ID:1607) 
  40. 玩具 (新字新仮名、作品ID:257) 
  41. 帰去来 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1584) 
  42. 逆行 (旧字旧仮名、作品ID:259) 
  43. 逆行 (新字新仮名、作品ID:260) 
  44. 饗応夫人 (新字新仮名、作品ID:291) 
  45. 狂言の神 (新字新仮名、作品ID:290) 
  46. 虚構の春 (新字新仮名、作品ID:289) 
  47. 魚服記 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1563) 
  48. 禁酒の心 (新字新仮名、作品ID:284) 
  49. 九月十月十一月 (旧字旧仮名、作品ID:43311) 
  50. グッド・バイ (新字新仮名、作品ID:258) 
  51. 苦悩の年鑑 (新字新仮名、作品ID:288) 
  52. 校長三代 (旧字旧仮名、作品ID:43313) 
  53. 故郷 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1585) 
  54. 心の王者 (新字新仮名、作品ID:18346) 
  55. 乞食学生 (新字新仮名、作品ID:285) 
  56. 五所川原 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:4356) 
  57. 古典風 (新字新仮名、作品ID:286) 
  58. 困惑の弁 (新字新仮名、作品ID:18349) 
  59. 座興に非ず (新字新仮名、作品ID:2261) 
  60. 酒の追憶 (新字新仮名、作品ID:318) 
  61. 作家の手帖 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1093) 
  62. 佐渡 (新字新仮名、作品ID:317) 
  63. 猿ヶ島 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1579) 
  64. 猿面冠者 (旧字旧仮名、作品ID:2262) 
  65. 猿面冠者 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2263) 
  66. 散華 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1095) 
  67. 自作を語る (新字新仮名、作品ID:42366) 
  68. 市井喧争 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42361) 
  69. 失敗園 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2264) 
  70. 弱者の糧 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42367) 
  71. 斜陽 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1565) 
  72. 十二月八日 (新字新仮名、作品ID:253) 
  73. 秋風記 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2267) 
  74. 純真 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:4358) 
  75. 女生徒 (新字新仮名、作品ID:275) 
  76. 女類 (新字新仮名、作品ID:274) 
  77. 新釈諸国噺 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2269) 
  78. 新樹の言葉 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2270) 
  79. 新ハムレット (新字新仮名、作品ID:1576) 
  80. 親友交歓 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2271) 
  81. 水仙 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2272) 
  82.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:2273) 
  83. 雀こ (新字新仮名、作品ID:2274) 
  84. 正義と微笑 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1577) 
  85. 清貧譚 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:2275) 
  86. 『清貧譚』英訳版 A Tale of Honorable Poverty (その他、作品ID:2276)     →山本 ゆうじ(翻訳者)
  87. 惜別 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2277) 
  88. 善蔵を思う (新字新仮名、作品ID:2278) 
  89. 創作余談 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42369) 
  90. 創生記 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2279) 
  91. 俗天使 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2280) 
  92. ダス・ゲマイネ (新字新仮名、作品ID:42945) 
  93. たずねびと (新字新仮名、作品ID:2281) 
  94. 多頭蛇哲学 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42370) 
  95.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:251) 
  96. 誰も知らぬ (新字新仮名、作品ID:252) 
  97. 断崖の錯覚 (新字新仮名、作品ID:249)     →黒木 舜平(著者)
  98. 男女同権 (新字新仮名、作品ID:250) 
  99. 小さいアルバム (新字新仮名、作品ID:237) 
  100. 地球図 (新字新仮名、作品ID:247) 
  101. 畜犬談 (新字新仮名、作品ID:246) 
  102. 竹青 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1047) 
  103. 地図 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:5005) 
  104.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:245) 
  105. チャンス (新字新仮名、作品ID:244) 
  106. 千代女 (新字新仮名、作品ID:248) 
  107. 津軽 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:2282) 
  108. デカダン抗議 (新字新仮名、作品ID:254) 
  109. 鉄面皮 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2284) 
  110. 答案落第 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42371) 
  111. 東京だより (新字新仮名、作品ID:1109) 
  112. 道化の華 (旧字旧仮名、作品ID:255) 
  113. トカトントン (新字新仮名、作品ID:2285) 
  114. 豊島与志雄著『高尾ざんげ』解説 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42355) 
  115. 二十世紀旗手 (新字新仮名、作品ID:234) 
  116. 如是我聞 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1084) 
  117. 女人訓戒 (新字新仮名、作品ID:303) 
  118. 女人創造 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42353) 
  119.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:302) 
  120. 人間失格 (新字新仮名、作品ID:301) 
  121.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:2288) 
  122. 薄明 (新字新仮名、作品ID:263) 
  123. 葉桜と魔笛 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42376) 
  124.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:262) 
  125. 走ラヌ名馬 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1059) 
  126. 走れメロス (新字新仮名、作品ID:1567) 
  127. 八十八夜 (新字新仮名、作品ID:235) 
  128. 花火 (新字新仮名、作品ID:264) 
  129. 花吹雪 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1582) 
  130.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:261) 
  131.  (新字新仮名、作品ID:24449) 
  132. 春の枯葉 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1581) 
  133. 春の盗賊 (新字新仮名、作品ID:266) 
  134. パンドラの匣 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1566) 
  135. 犯人 (新字新仮名、作品ID:265) 
  136. 「晩年」と「女生徒」 (新字新仮名、作品ID:18351) 
  137. 「晩年」に就いて (新字新仮名、作品ID:42358) 
  138. 眉山 (新字新仮名、作品ID:243) 
  139. 美少女 (新字新仮名、作品ID:242) 
  140. 美男子と煙草 (新字新仮名、作品ID:241) 
  141. 一つの約束 (新字新仮名、作品ID:43069) 
  142. 火の鳥 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:269) 
  143. 火の鳥 (新字新仮名、作品ID:268) 
  144. 皮膚と心 (新字新仮名、作品ID:267) 
  145. HUMAN LOST (新字新仮名、作品ID:271) 
  146. フォスフォレッスセンス (新字新仮名、作品ID:310) 
  147. 富嶽百景 (新字旧仮名、作品ID:270) 
  148. 服装に就いて (新字新仮名、作品ID:256) 
  149. 不審庵 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1583) 
  150. 冬の花火 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1580) 
  151. 返事 (新字新仮名、作品ID:42372) 
  152. 待つ (新字新仮名、作品ID:2317) 
  153. 満願 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1564) 
  154. 未帰還の友に (新字新仮名、作品ID:297) 
  155. みみずく通信 (新字新仮名、作品ID:298) 
  156. 女神 (新字新仮名、作品ID:293) 
  157. めくら草紙 (新字新仮名、作品ID:294) 
  158. 雌に就いて (新字新仮名、作品ID:296) 
  159. メリイクリスマス (新字新仮名、作品ID:295) 
  160. 盲人独笑 (新字新仮名、作品ID:299) 
  161. やんぬる哉 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2294) 
  162. 雪の夜の話 (新字新仮名、作品ID:1573) 
  163. 懶惰の歌留多 (新字新仮名、作品ID:279) 
  164. リイズ (新字新仮名、作品ID:292) 
  165. 律子と貞子 (新字新仮名、作品ID:314) 
  166. 令嬢アユ (新字新仮名、作品ID:311) 
  167. 列車 (旧字旧仮名、作品ID:313) 
  168. 列車 (新字新仮名、作品ID:312) 
  169. ロマネスク (新字新仮名、作品ID:316) 
  170. ろまん燈籠 (新字新仮名、作品ID:315) 
  171. 渡り鳥 (新字新仮名、作品ID:2295) 
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Hope that here is a wonderful land for Dazai!

Osamu Dazai (1909-1948) - Pseudonym of Tsushima Shuji

Japanese novelist who became at the end of World War II the literary voice and literary hero of his generation. Dazai's life ended in double-suicide with his married lover. In many books Dazai used biographical material from his own family background, and made his self-destructive life the subject of his books. Dazai rejected the idealistic circle of authors with aristocratic pretensions. For a time he joined the communist movement. His opposition to the prevailing social and literary trends was shared by fellow members of Burai-ha (Decadents).


"Dazai's life and work, many Japanese critics have pointed out, are closely intertwined. The more reader knows of Dazai's life, so the argument goes, the more Dazai can and should be admired for finding a literary means to bare his soul." (J. Thomas Rimer in Reader's Guide to Japanese Literature, 1999)

Dazai Osamu was born in Kanagi, in northern Honshu, as the tenth of eleven children. His father was a wealthy landowner and politician. Dazai studied French literature at the University of Tokyo. There he came into contact with Marxism, started to write and gradually dropped his studies. Dazai first attracted attention in 1933 when his short stories began to appear in magazines. Between the years 1930 and 1937 he made three suicide attempts, and dealt the subject many of his short stories, among them 'Doke no hana' (1936, in BANNEN) and 'Tokyo hyakkei' (1941). 'A Clown among Clowns' describes Dazai trying to describe his first suicide attempt. "Well, that one didn't work. Suppose we have a try at the panoramic method."


In 1939 Dazai married Ishihara Michiko, which started a new period in his life. After the war Dazai became friends with the writer Masuji Ibuse. The tone of his postwar works was dark, but touched the lost generation of youth with his troubled life, suicidal thoughts, and spirit of rebelliousness. Dazai wrote in a simple and colloquial style. His best stories were based on his own experiences and were classified in the category known as shishosetsu, or autobiographical/confessional fiction. He also wrote children's stories and historical narratives. In his masterpieces, such as SHAYO (1947, The Setting Sun), addressing many social, human and philosophical issues. The word 'shayo' (setting sun) gave rise to the word 'shayozoku' (impoverished aristocracy), covering those whose world died in the war. NINGEN SHIKKAKU (1948, No Longer Human) was an attack on the traditions of Japan, capturing the postwar crisis of Japanese cultural identity. "I never personally met the madman who wrote these notebooks..." begins the epilogue of the story.


Shayo is a tragic story of life in postwar Japan, dealing with the fall of an aristocratic family, and how traditions or "proper etiquette" is destroyed by the war. "This may not be the way of eating soup that etiquette dictates, but to me it is most appealing and somehow really genuine. As a matter of fact, it is as Mother does, sitting serenely erect, that when you look down to it. But being, in Naoji's words, a high-class beggar and unable to eat with Mother's effortless ease, I bend over the plate in the gloomy fashion prescribed by proper etiquette."


The protagonist, Kazuko, a young woman, wears Western clothes, but her outlook is Japanese. She is evacuated from Tokyo during the war with her mother. They look hopefully to the return of the son from southeast Asia. He does return, but as a drug addict. At the end of the war, Kazuko loses her mother. Her brother Naoji is caught in the web of his own and society's failures, driving him eventually to suicide. Kazuko decides to have a child with the disillusioned intellectual Uehara, hoping that the child will be her moral revolution.


No Longer Human (its actual Japanese title is "Disqualified as a Human") was Dazai's second novel. The book is one of the classics of Japanese literature and has been translated into several languages. The protagonist is a young man who feel himself alienated from society but hides his true thoughts. The story also gives an account of the author's personal decline and his relationships to women. "I have been sickly ever since I was a child and have frequently been confined to bed. How often as I lay there I used to think what uninspired decorations sheets and pillow cases make. It wasn't until I was about twenty that I realized that they actually served a practical purpose, and this revelation of human dullness stirred dark depression in me."


Among Dazai's finest short stories is 'Viyon no tsuma' (1947, Villon's Wife). The narrator is the wife of a poet, who has virtually abandoned her. She finds meaning in her existence by taking a job for a tavern keeper from whom her husband has stolen money. Her determination to survive is tested by hardships, rape and her husband's self-delusion, but her will is not broken. In 'O-san', translated in Japan Quarterly (October-December, 1958) the wife revals the disparity between the writer's reasons and his actual reasons for suicide. Dazai's story 'Hashire Merosu' (Run, Merosu!) was adapted into screen in 1966 by the director Senkichi Taniguchi under the title Kiganjo no boken (Adventures of Takla Makan). The film, starring Toshiro Mifune, Tadao Nakamaru, Tatsuya Mihashi, and Makoto Sato, was partly shot in Iran near Isfahan and at Toho Studios (Tokyo). In the story, set in the distant past, a Japanese adventurer and a priest travel the silk road in their search for Buddha's ashes.


After the war, Dazai's alienation continued. He made observations of those who had supported the militaristic regime before and in the new political situation embraced democracy. On June 13, in 1948, Dazai drowned himself in Tokyo and left behind unfinished novel GOODBYE. There is a theory that the lady who drowned with him pushed him in. Dazai's daughter Yukio Tsushima also became a writer and published her first short story in 1969. Her works in the 1970s arose from the collapse of the economic bubble and coincided with a return to the Japanese variant of the first-person novel, shishosetsu, in which vivid descriptions of the mundane reality of the author's own private world predominate.
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